Amnesty International said in its 2022/2023 annual report "The state of the world’s human rights" that several countries, including Russia, Türkiye and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), violated the UN arms embargo, established since 2011, by retaining foreign fighters and military equipment in Libya.

"While the national ceasefire in place since October 2020 generally held, militias and armed groups violated international humanitarian law during sporadic, localized armed clashes, including by carrying out indiscriminate attacks and destroying civilian infrastructure and private property." The report says.

It adds that in August, clashes between militias in densely populated Tripoli neighbourhoods left 32 people dead, including three children and other civilians, and led to damage of scores of civilian homes and other property, and at least four medical facilities.

"In September, a child and at least six others, mostly civilians, were killed during clashes between rival militias in the city of al-Zawyia. At least 39 people across the country died as a result of landmines and unexploded ordnance being detonated." The report further adds.

The report indicates that officials and members of militias and armed groups responsible for crimes under international law enjoyed near total impunity, saying that authorities continued to fund abusive armed groups and militias, integrating their members into state institutions without vetting.

"Throughout the year, mass graves were discovered in the cities of Tarhouna and Sirte, believed to contain the remains of individuals killed by al-Kaniyat and Islamic State armed groups, respectively. Ongoing investigations into unlawful killings carried out by al-Kaniyat while they controlled Tarhouna until June 2020 were marred by concerns over their independence, effectiveness and transparency, and the absence of prosecutions in fair trials in front of regular courts of those against whom there is sufficient admissible evidence of involvement in crimes." The report remarks.